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September 20, 2013 / Roel

Grammar – Verbs with a root-change

Verbs with a root-change

 

How words are formed which don’t use the root

 

There are words which have elements within the verb conjugation which are different from the root. This has to do with the pronunciation. The root ‘spreken‘ is pronounced like ‘spreyken’ (ey like in hey and e like in e in ‘user’)

Although you write just one ‘e’, it’s pronounced like a long e, the ‘ee’. This has to do with the k. If you write kk, it’s a double k and it would be pronounced with the short ‘e‘, which is pronounced like ‘a‘ in ‘and‘. If in a word you see a vowel and after that vowel there is a double letter, you have to pronounce the short version of that vowel. ‘bellen’ means‘to call’ and isn’t pronounced like ‘e‘ in spreken, but with the short ‘e‘ which sounds like the ‘a‘ in ‘and‘, because you see llthere and not l, which means that you use the short pronunciation.

Now let’s look at the verb ‘spreken’. When we say ‘I speak‘, we write ‘ik spreek‘, because if we would write ‘ik sprek‘ there would be a wrong pronunciation. The long ‘e‘ needs to be retained, so we write the double ‘e‘.

We write ‘ik spreek‘, ‘jij spreekt‘, ‘hij spreekt‘. Now let’s look at the plural forms, they contain the double ‘e‘, wij sprekenjullie sprekenzij spreken. This is because there is one k, and if there is one k and this k is immediately succeeded by another vowel, this means that we have to use the long pronunciation. The same for the verb ‘praten‘ (to talk), after the t there is an ‘e’ and not a consonant, so we have to use the long ’a’.

verb with a root change:

spreken

 

ik spreek

jij spreekt

hij/zij/het spreekt

wij spreken

jullie spreken

zij spreken

September 20, 2013 / Roel

Grammar – Regular verbs

regular verbs have the following suffixes:

ik        =  –

jij         = -t

hij/zij   = -t

wij         =  -en

jullie      = -en

zij           = -en

Regular verb example: werken = to work

How to make a root?

The root of a verb is the part which you use to do other things with the verb, like making the past tense.

Let’s take the word: werken

After the e there are multiple consonants, so we can keep the e in our root.

The root is: werk, because we remove -en and you only have werk left now.

Now let’s take the word lopen (to walk), the o is pronounced like oo, a long o, because after the consonant you get a vowel, we add o to it and we get loopen, now we remove the -en and we get loop, the root.

Now we take the word: wonen

The same process here: consonant + vowel, so we need to add o to the word, which gives us woonen, now remove -en and we get woon.

How to make a regular verb?

1. You need to have the verb, which is in this case ‘werken’

2. You remove -en at the end of the verb. We have ‘werk’ now, the root or what it is called in Dutch: ‘stam’.

3. You add the suffix which you need to the verb and you add the personal pronoun at the start. If I want to say: ‘I work’, this becomes ‘ik werk’.

Personal pronoun + root + suffix

ik = personal pronoun

werk = stam

suffix = -, we don’t need to add anything, so that’s it.

If we want to say: ‘he works’, we do the same:

personal pronoun =       hij

root =                                  werk

suffix =                                 -t

We get:  hij werkt.

It’s as simple as that.

 

Rules to remember!

 

Forming a root:

 

1. multiple consonants = keeping the letter

2. consonant + vowel = add an extra vowel

 

Making a regular verb:

 

1. make the root

2. remove -en

3. add the suffix

September 20, 2013 / Roel

Lesson 4 – Ik leer Nederlands

Tekst  (text in Dutch)

Ik leer Nederlands. De taal wordt gesproken in Nederland en lijkt op Engels. Ik woon nu in Nederland, maar ik kom uit Engeland.

Vocabulary:

ik leer (leren) = I learn (to learn)  regular verb

wordt (worden) = in this context: is      otherwise: to become   irregular verb

gesproken    = spoken (past tense)

in                     = in

en                    = and

lijkt op (lijken op) = looks like (to look like)        irregular verb

Engels            = English

nu                    = now

Nederland     = the Netherlands

ik kom (komen)     = I come (to come)         irregular verb

uit                       = this context: from          other meaning: out

Grammar

Verb – Past tense     (voltooid deelwoord)

In Dutch the past tense is similar to English. Just like in English you use the verb ‘to have’ in order to form this verb. The past tense in Dutch is called voltooid deelwoord and it means that someone did something in the past and doesn’t do it anymore.

Hij heeft geleerd    ==> he learned and now he is done

Hij is gekomen ==> he came and now he is done with this action, so he is there

The way to form the past tense is by first adding ge- to the root of a verb. Let’s take the verb leren. The root is formed by using the I form of a verb and in this case it is ik leer. leer is the root. We add ge- to the start of this root and now we have geleer. The word ends with the letter r, this means that we add a d. The past tense becomes geleerd. You can add either a d or a t. It is dependent on the last letter which one you have to use. There are rules for that though, if the word ends with one of the following letters you have to add a t:   k, f, s, c, h, i, p.

In Dutch you use ‘t Kofschip in order to know when to add a t, this word doesn’t exist in English, so you can use the word  soft pitch + k. The k doesn’t fit in here so you have to remember it seperately, but otherwise all the words in which you have add a t are present in these English words, which you can use to remember it. This only works with verbs in which you can add a d or t, you also have verbs in which you add -en instead of -d or -t.

Let’s take an example: wonen (to live)

ik woon = I live, so we know that the root is woon. Now let’s add ge-. We get:  gewoon. We are almost there, now we just have to choose the right ending. We take the word soft pitch and the letter k again. Can we spot n in here? No, so in this case we use d, because t is in the word soft pitch and the last letter doesn’t contain a letter of the word soft pitch or the letter k.

Irregular verbs

hebben (to have)

ik heb

jij hebt

hij/zij/het heeft

wij hebben

jullie hebben

zij hebben

ik had = I had

ik heb gehad = I have had

Like explained in an earlier lesson, you can form plural by reducing the letters. This works for irregular verbs in the past too if you have double letters, so if you want to make a plural form out of ik leek, you say: wij leken. Important!! There are more ways to form the past with irregular verbs, this is just one form.

lijken op:

ik lijk op      = I look like

ik leek op    = I looked like

ik heb geleken op = I have looked like

komen:

ik kom = I come

ik kwam = I came

ik ben gekomen = I have come

total vocabulary: 10 new words = 41 words

September 20, 2013 / Roel

Grammar – Personal Pronouns

Personal pronouns – Persoonlijke voornaamwoorden

The personal pronouns are quite easy. The only thing which you need to learn is that ‘zij’ can be in both singular and plural. You need to know the context of a phrase in order to know if ‘zij’ is either singular or plural, you can also look at the verb. If you read for instance: zij werkt‘ it means that it’s singular, thus it’s singular and it means ‘she works’. If you read ‘zij werken‘, it means that it’s plural so it means ‘they work’.

ik = I

jij = you

hij = he

zij = she

het = it

wij = we

jullie = you (plural)

zij = they

 

September 19, 2013 / Roel

Grammar – The Article

The article – Het lidwoord

In Dutch you have 2 defined articles, de and het. The indefined article is een, which is always the same and because of this not hard to use. There aren’t rules about when to use de and het, you just have to learn them all, which is why you will always see which article you have to use in the vocabulary section.

In plural you always use de, even if the article of a word is het you will use de in plural.

September 19, 2013 / Roel

Lesson 3 – Ik spreek Nederlands

Text

Ik ben Kees. Ik spreek al een beetje Nederlands, maar het is een moeilijke taal.

Vocabulary:

ik spreek (spreken) = I speak   irregular

al = already

een = a, an

beetje = bit

Nederlands = Dutch

maar = but

het = it

moeilijk(e) = difficult, hard

de taal = the language

Grammar

How words are formed which don’t use the root

There are words which have elements within the verb conjugation which are different from the root. This has to do with the pronunciation. The root ‘spreken‘ is pronounced like ‘spreyken’ (ey like in hey and e like in e in ‘user’)

Although you write just one ‘e’, it’s pronounced like a long e, the ‘ee’. This has to do with the k. If you write kk, it’s a double k and it would be pronounced with the short ‘e‘, which is pronounced like ‘a‘ in ‘and‘. If in a word you see a vowel and after that vowel there is a double letter, you have to pronounce the short version of that vowel. ‘bellen’ means ‘to call’ and isn’t pronounced like ‘e‘ in spreken, but with the short ‘e‘ which sounds like the ‘a‘ in ‘and‘, because you see ll there and not l, which means that you use the short pronunciation.

Now let’s look at the verb ‘spreken’. When we say ‘I speak‘, we write ‘ik spreek‘, because if we would write ‘ik sprek‘ there would be a wrong pronunciation. The long ‘e‘ needs to be retained, so we write the double ‘e‘.

We write ‘ik spreek‘, ‘jij spreekt‘, ‘hij spreekt‘. Now let’s look at the plural forms, they contain the double ‘e‘, wij spreken, jullie spreken, zij spreken. This is because there is one k, and if there is one k and this k is immediately succeeded by another vowel, this means that we have to use the long pronunciation. The same for the verb ‘praten‘ (to talk), after the t there is an ‘e’ and not a consonant, so we have to use the long ‘a’.

verbs with a root-change:

 

spreken

 

ik spreek

jij spreekt

hij/zij/het spreekt

wij spreken

jullie spreken

zij spreken

Articles

In Dutch you have 2 defite articles, de and het. The indefinite article is een, which is always the same and because of this not hard to use. There aren’t rules about when to use de and het, you just have to learn them all, which is why you will always see which article you have to use in the vocabulary section.

vocabulary:

bellen = to call

praten = to talk

Vocabulary: 11 new words = 31 words

September 19, 2013 / Roel

Lesson 2 – Dit is Jan

Text

Ik heet Kees. Dit is Jan. Hij woont hier sinds 2 maanden.

Vocabulary:

dit = this

is = is

hij = he              (ij like    e + i, e like ‘a’ in ‘and‘ and i like ee in ‘feedback )

hij woont = he lives

hier = here          (ie like ee infeedback‘)

sinds = since

maanden = months     ( e like e in ‘pages‘ )

maand = month

 

grammar

‘to be’

ik ben = I am

jij bent = you are

hij/zij/het is = he/she/it is

wij zijn = we are

jullie zijn = you are (plural)

zij zijn = they are

9 new words = 19 words

verbs

regular verbs have the following suffixes:

ik        =  –

jij         = -t

hij/zij   = -t

wij         =  -en

jullie      = -en

zij           = -en

Regular verb example: werken = to work

How to make a root?

The root of a verb is the part which you use to do other things with the verb, like making the past tense.

Let’s take the word: werken

After the e there are multiple consonants, so we can keep the e in our root.

The root is: werk, because we remove -en and you only have werk left now.

Now let’s take the word lopen (to walk), the o is pronounced like oo, a long o, because after the consonant you get a vowel, we add o to it and we get loopen, now we remove the -en and we get loop, the root.

Now we take the word: wonen

The same process here: consonant + vowel, so we need to add o to the word, which gives us woonen, now remove -en and we get woon.

How to make a regular verb?

1. You need to have the verb, which is in this case ‘werken’

2. You remove -en at the end of the verb. We have ‘werk’ now, the root or what it is called in Dutch: ‘stam’.

3. You add the suffix which you need to the verb and you add the personal pronoun at the start. If I want to say: ‘I work’, this becomes ‘ik werk’.

Personal pronoun + root + suffix

ik = personal pronoun

werk = stam

suffix = -, we don’t need to add anything, so that’s it.

If we want to say: ‘he works’, we do the same:

personal pronoun =       hij

root =                                  werk

suffix =                                 -t

We get:  hij werkt.

It’s as simple as that.

 

Rules to remember!

 

Forming a root:

1. multiple consonants = keeping the letter

2. consonant + vowel = add an extra vowel

 

Making a regular verb:

1. make the root

2. remove -en

3. add the suffix

 

September 19, 2013 / Roel

Lesson 1 – Ik heet Kees

Lesson 1

Pronunciation

Only letters with a different pronunciatrion than English will be mentioned, pronunciation will be given with words. This means that you can use this as a reference, but in the first lessons you don’t need to look up the pronunciation.

  • g = kh
  • r = rolling R like in Spanish
  • sch = s + kh
  • ch = kh
  • x = ks
  • ij = combination of e (like a in ‘and) + i (pronounced like ‘ee’ in ‘feedback), pronounced after eachother very fastly
  • ei = combination of e (like a in ‘and) + i (pronounced like ‘ee’ in ‘feedback), pronounced after eachother very fastly
  • ie = ee like in feedback
  • ou = ow like in ‘how
  • au = ow like in ‘how
  • ee = a like in ‘page
  • aa = a, but try to make your mouth open horizontally instead of in a circle while pronouncing it and keep making this sound longer than ‘a’ in order to pronounce it correctly.
  • oo = o like in ‘sort‘, but when pronouncing this o you have to go down with your tongue in order to make the right sound. Don’t pronounce it like the ‘o‘ in English ‘so‘, because this is a long oo too, but this sound changes when making it while the ‘oo‘  in Dutch needs to be constantly the same sound.

Text

Hallo, ik heet Kees.

vocabulary:

hallo = hello       (a like in ‘after‘)

ik = I

ik heet = I ‘m called         (ee like a in ‘page‘)

Total vocabulary: 3 words

Grammar

Personal pronouns

ik = I

jij = you

hij = he

zij = she

het = it

wij = we

jullie = you (plural)

zij = they

 

Vocabulary: 10 words

September 19, 2013 / Roel

Welcome

Welcome to lessons for Dutch. This blog will provide lessons in order to teach yourself the Dutch language for free. I will cover grammar, vocabulary and phonology and the aim of this learning blog is to give you the knowledge to be able to comprehend Dutch and to use it.

We will start with a short introduction, because we want tolearn Dutch and not to know everything about the history of it, although some basic knowledge is necessary.

Dutchanguagearea

Dutch language area

The language

Dutch is a Germanic language. It is related to English, Frisian, German and the Scandinavian languages and it is part of the west-Germanic languages. This means that knowing English will be of a great help when you want to learn Dutch.

The oldest known phrase is: ‘Hebban olla vogala nestan hagunan hinase hic anda thu, wat unbidan we nu?’

It means ‘All the birds have started making nests, except for me and you, what are we waiting for?’

Like you can see, a word like ‘anda’, meaning ‘and’ makes it clear that there is a relationship between Dutch and English.

Method

The most important reason why you can use this blog to learn Dutch:

I will provide texts in this blog in order to teach you reading comprehension, in a lot of blogs where you can learn a language the aim is primarily on the grammar, while reading is one of the most important aspects of learning a language.

Each lesson will contain a text and some grammar. The lessons are short in order to make it possible to work through the method fastly. Each lesson also contains vocabulary and each time you will see how much vocabulary you know if you have worked through everything. The vocabulary amount is based on the root words. This means that ‘bericht‘ is a new word, but ‘berichten‘ (plural) isn’t. Within the vocabulary, only the root word will be counted as a new learned word. There is an exception for this with the verbs ‘to be‘ in Dutch, because this is an important irregular verb with conjugations which look quite different from eachother, all other verbs however aren’t considered as containing new words in the conjugations.

Important!!

Since older words will often not be given in new lessons it’s very important to make sure that you learned the new amount of words before you go on with the next lesson, otherwise it’s possible that you won’t understand the texts anymore.

Sometimes there will be seperate posts with the vocabulary thus far and there can also be posts containing some new vocabulary and just texts.