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September 20, 2013 / Roel

Lesson 4 – Ik leer Nederlands

Tekst  (text in Dutch)

Ik leer Nederlands. De taal wordt gesproken in Nederland en lijkt op Engels. Ik woon nu in Nederland, maar ik kom uit Engeland.

Vocabulary:

ik leer (leren) = I learn (to learn)  regular verb

wordt (worden) = in this context: is      otherwise: to become   irregular verb

gesproken    = spoken (past tense)

in                     = in

en                    = and

lijkt op (lijken op) = looks like (to look like)        irregular verb

Engels            = English

nu                    = now

Nederland     = the Netherlands

ik kom (komen)     = I come (to come)         irregular verb

uit                       = this context: from          other meaning: out

Grammar

Verb – Past tense     (voltooid deelwoord)

In Dutch the past tense is similar to English. Just like in English you use the verb ‘to have’ in order to form this verb. The past tense in Dutch is called voltooid deelwoord and it means that someone did something in the past and doesn’t do it anymore.

Hij heeft geleerd    ==> he learned and now he is done

Hij is gekomen ==> he came and now he is done with this action, so he is there

The way to form the past tense is by first adding ge- to the root of a verb. Let’s take the verb leren. The root is formed by using the I form of a verb and in this case it is ik leer. leer is the root. We add ge- to the start of this root and now we have geleer. The word ends with the letter r, this means that we add a d. The past tense becomes geleerd. You can add either a d or a t. It is dependent on the last letter which one you have to use. There are rules for that though, if the word ends with one of the following letters you have to add a t:   k, f, s, c, h, i, p.

In Dutch you use ‘t Kofschip in order to know when to add a t, this word doesn’t exist in English, so you can use the word  soft pitch + k. The k doesn’t fit in here so you have to remember it seperately, but otherwise all the words in which you have add a t are present in these English words, which you can use to remember it. This only works with verbs in which you can add a d or t, you also have verbs in which you add -en instead of -d or -t.

Let’s take an example: wonen (to live)

ik woon = I live, so we know that the root is woon. Now let’s add ge-. We get:  gewoon. We are almost there, now we just have to choose the right ending. We take the word soft pitch and the letter k again. Can we spot n in here? No, so in this case we use d, because t is in the word soft pitch and the last letter doesn’t contain a letter of the word soft pitch or the letter k.

Irregular verbs

hebben (to have)

ik heb

jij hebt

hij/zij/het heeft

wij hebben

jullie hebben

zij hebben

ik had = I had

ik heb gehad = I have had

Like explained in an earlier lesson, you can form plural by reducing the letters. This works for irregular verbs in the past too if you have double letters, so if you want to make a plural form out of ik leek, you say: wij leken. Important!! There are more ways to form the past with irregular verbs, this is just one form.

lijken op:

ik lijk op      = I look like

ik leek op    = I looked like

ik heb geleken op = I have looked like

komen:

ik kom = I come

ik kwam = I came

ik ben gekomen = I have come

total vocabulary: 10 new words = 41 words

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